Thursday, May 21, 2020
When you need to say to admit in French, you will use the verbÃ admettre. Conjugating this verb is a little tricky, but there is a pattern as you will see in this lesson. Conjugating the French VerbÃ Admettre Just as we add an -ed or -ing ending to verbs in English, we need to conjugate French verbs. It is a little more difficult and complex, but there are patterns involved. WhileÃ admettreÃ is anÃ irregular verb, there is a pattern here. In fact, allÃ French verbs ending inÃ -mettreÃ are conjugated in the same way. To find the correct conjugation, simply match the subject pronoun to the tense you need for the sentence. For instance, I admit is jadmets and we will admit is nous admettrons. The Present Participle ofÃ Admettre You can use theÃ present participleÃ of admettre as a verb and it also works as an adjective, gerund, or noun in some circumstances. The present participle is formed by dropping the -re and adding -antÃ to getÃ admettant. Using the Past Participle for PassÃ © ComposÃ © Rather than use the imperfect for past tense, you can use theÃ passÃ © composÃ ©. To do this, you need to conjugate theÃ auxiliary verbÃ avoirÃ and use theÃ past participleÃ of admis. To complete the passÃ © composÃ ©, simply put the elements together. For instance, I admitted is jai admis and she admitted is elle a admis. MoreÃ AdmettreÃ Conjugations In the beginning, you should concentrate on the present, future, and passÃ © composÃ © forms. However, there may be instances when you need to use one of the following. While the passÃ © simple and imperfect subjunctive are used primarily in formal French writing, you may need the other two. The subjunctive is helpful when the verb action is subjective or questionable. The conditional is similar, though its used to imply that something may or may not happen. The imperative may be particularly helpful withÃ admettreÃ because its used for short exclamations. When using it you can skip the pronoun. Rather than nous admettons, you can simplify it to admettons.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Perhaps one of the most famous betrayals in history was that of Julius Caesar by his friend Marcus Brutus. Upon realizing his friendÃ¢â¬â¢s part in his death, a shocked Caesar asks, Ã¢â¬Å"Et tu, Brute? [You too, Brutus?]Ã¢â¬ and falls to his death. (Et tu, Brute?) The allegorical story Lord of The Flies consists of many situations where the conflicts and betrayals between Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin are represented through two boys on the island, Jack and Ralph. In the beginning of the story, Jack and Ralph work together and have generally peaceful relations. However, as time goes on, tension on the island increases, eventually resulting in the boys becoming leaders of two separate tribes. Finally, Jack violates the previously agreed upon peaceÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The boys are forced to survive on a deserted island with no adults. Initially, the boys get along well. Jack and Ralph are two of the older boys, both headstrong in two separate ways. Ralph has a desire to keep order on the island whilst Jack is hungry for power. Ralph is quickly realized as the best fit for a leader and elected chief, but makes sure to give Jack an important role as well after noticing his jealousy. Ralph says of Jack, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËJackÃ¢â¬â¢s in charge of the choir. They can be- what do you want them to be?Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ Jack responds with Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËHunters,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Jack and Ralph smiled at each other with a shy likingÃ¢â¬ (Golding 23). Ralph gives Jack this job more so to avoid conflict than to have any type of second-in-command on the island. This is largely a political move, just as the Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact was. In the eyes of Stalin, who is compared to Ralph, the pact to keep peace largely benefited him. Stalin was given Ã¢â¬Å"time to build up the Soviet militaryÃ¢â¬ while keeping Ã¢â¬Å"his nation on peaceful terms with GermanyÃ¢â¬ (German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact), and Jack was given a job by Ralph to avoid co nflict. The alliance between Hitler and Stalin helped the both of them out immensely; it even Ã¢â¬Å"contained a secret agreement in which the Soviets and Germans agreed how they would later divide up Eastern EuropeÃ¢â¬ (German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact). The original meetings of both Hitler
Plan: Interpretation of prompt: Generally throughout the majority of conflicts especially physical conflict, it is the men who are at the forefront fighting the battle. However it is the mother, the wives, the daughters and the sisters of these men who are the ones who suffer most. Paragraphs/Ideas * Picassos painting Ã¢â¬Å"the weeping womanÃ¢â¬ depicts a grief stricken lady, experiencing the true devastation of losing a beloved male to the horror of the Spanish civil War. We will write a custom essay sample on In conflict, it is women who suffer most or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the quiet American, it is Phuong who suffers throughout the text, being torn between both men when having to decide who she wants to be with as a result of the conflict between the two men. * Essay: History has proven to the world that no matter gender, race or religion, conflict will always arise. Not always but generally it is the men of the world who stand up for what they believe in, resulting in the battle of conflict between men. Frequently ending physically, men attempt to prove dominance in their competitive race through conflict, while women are forced to take a back seat. Despite the result of a male dominated conflict, the deeper consequences show a suffering and pain that is caused to the women who are affected most from the outcome. Famous painter Pablo PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s painting of the Ã¢â¬Å"Weeping WomanÃ¢â¬ presents the severe suffering that is caused to women through conflict. Representing a woman devastated by the effects of the Spanish Civil War, Picasso displays a face that is etched with a universal pain felt by all women who have been affected through the loss of men to war. The tears treaming down her excoriated face shows the suffering caused by a woman who has clearly felt the true effect of a conflict. Although millions of men have lost their lived and been damaged physically through war, it is clearly devastated through the PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s painting that the emotional suffering that impacts on women is much more severe. Women have very little impact when it comes to conflict, especially when it is male dominated . Being forced to be a bystander like the weeping women, causes adverse emotion affects on women, such that is more traumatising to them than the conflict to the man. They may not always display it, but women always feel the pain of conflict more harshly than men. The harsh suffering that women experience through conflict is similarly exemplified in Grahem GreeneÃ¢â¬â¢s text The Quiet American. GreeneÃ¢â¬â¢s female main character Phoung and her sister represent two Vietnamese women who are affected differently by the horrors of the Vietnam War. The conflict of the war mixed in with the rivalry of her two loverÃ¢â¬â¢s for her affection tears Phuong apart and inflicts emotional pain on her. Her love for main character Fowler combats against her will to be married to protagonist Pyle, causing her to feel a world of hurt as a result. With Phuong unable to truly decide between her original lover and the man who can provide her with what she needs, we see the sorrow that slowly confuses and destroys her throughout the text. The pain of seeing her younger sister unhappy and unmarried also tears at Phuongs sister, with her main priority of doing what is right for Phuong impacting her every decision. PhuongÃ¢â¬â¢s sister can clearly see the happiness experienced when her sister is with fowler however she knows that they are unable to marry. The need for Phuong to marry a man who can provide for her inflicts suffering upon PhuongÃ¢â¬â¢s sister as she forces herself to convince Phuong to make the appropriate choice. This conflict of man vs man influenced by the war presents just how women are always at the deepest end of suffering emotionally compared to men. It is the women such as Phuong and her sister who experience the unfathomable pain and suffering that is forced upon them by the conflict which only affects men to a certain level. Paragraph 3: Regardless of whether it is emotional or physical, the battle of supremacy within a conflict shall always end with suffering. What is not always seen on the surface of a conflict is the deeper pain that is thrust upon those who are not directly involved. Generally, it is the women who suffer the most throughout conflict, the women who are bystanders and experience the conflict on another level. Men are usually at the front line of a conflict, doing what is right by their beliefs however it is there beloved female family members who bear the grunt of the painful result of a conflict. How to cite In conflict, it is women who suffer most, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Abstract Researchers have concentrated on studying the relationship between the factors that affect human behavior. The different human behavior and abilities have effect in the management of organizations and learning institutions. This study provides a differential approach in examining the factors that contribute to different human behavior and ability. Data pertaining to different individual measures were obtained for some 182 Organizational Behavior students.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Perceived Stress specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Measures on emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and perceived stress were obtained using different instruments. A correlation analysis showed positive correlation between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy. A negative correlation was observed between perceived stress and emotional intelligence. A Similar correlat ion was observed between perceived stress and self-efficacy. The results illustrate the necessity of understanding emotions in managing perceived stress in different Introduction Individuals show different abilities to perform the tasks given to them in different settings like schools and places of work. Students in the learning institutions show different academic performances. Similarly, employees of an organization have different performance abilities for given tasks. Several factors may contribute to the different abilities of individuals. One such factor is self-efficacy. This may refer to the level of confidence that an individual have in his or her ability to perform a particular task and to execute a particular behavior successfully (Bandura, 1997 cited in Schyns and Moldzio, n.d). This is a flexible personal quality with its roots in the social cognitive theory (Gundlach, Martinko Douglas, 2003, 229). The emotional intelligence of an individual is another factor that may a ffect the performance of the individual in different tasks. Emotional intelligence is the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to be aware of, and manage, his emotions and the emotions of the others with whom they interact (Jordan, Ashkanasy, Hartel, 2002, p.5; Cote et al, 2006).). The other factor that may affect performance is the perceived stress in an individual. Stress can be described as Ã¢â¬Ëthe result of an imbalance between the physical or psychological demands encountered and the response capability of the individual, in case failure to meet the demands has important implications for the individualÃ¢â¬â¢ McGrath (1979 cited in Panda 2008). It is important to examine if the factors that affect the performance of an individual have a relationship with each other. The relationships that are observed are essential in the management of individuals with different abilities in diverse settings.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Ge t your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some researches have been conducted to study a relationship between these factors. Rathi and Rastogi (2008) carried out a research to investigate the relationship between self- efficacy and emotional intelligence. Another research was carried out by Panda (2008) to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and perceived stress. This research is based on the two previous researches and is intended to study the relationship between self-efficacy and perceived stress. The results of the researches indicated that there was a positive relationship between self-efficacy and emotional intelligence (Rathi Rastogi, 2008; Rathi Rastogi, 2009). Besides, it was observed that self-efficacy in academic has a positive relationship with an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s future performance at workplace provided the individual had low perceived stress. It was also observed that there was a significant negative relationship between emotional intelligence and perceived stress (Panda, 2008). This study uses similar approaches applied by the previous researchers. However, it is conducted in a learning environment and the level of performance at work place will be replaced by academic performance. Hypotheses of the study The study has four different hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that self-efficacy is positively correlated with emotional intelligence. It is also initially assumed that emotional intelligence is negatively correlated with perceived stress. The other hypothesis is that self-efficacy is negatively correlated with perceived stress. The last hypothesis is that there is a significant gender difference in the measures of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, and perceived stress. Method Subjects/participants The study involved 182 participants that were students studying Organizational Behavior at the two campuses of University of West Sydney: Campbelltown and Parramatta. There were 105 males, 76 females, as well as 1 participant who did not provide information on gender. Four of the participants also failed to provide information on their ages. The participants had a mean age of 21.3 years with a standard deviation of 4.14. Materials/apparatus The research employed several materials and instruments to obtain data from the students pertaining to the measures under investigation. One of the measures used in the research was WLEIS (Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale). WLEIS has four measures that show different dimensions of emotional intelligence in an individual. These measures include Self-Emotion Appraisal (SEA), Others Emotion Appraisal (OEA), Use of Emotion (UOE), and Regulation of Emotion (ROE). SEA provides a measure of the ability of individuals to understand and express their emotions (Law, Wong Song, 2004).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Perceived Stress specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A high score for this measurement implies that the individuals are more sensitive and have a better understanding of their emotions. OEA provides a measure of the ability of an individual to recognize and value the emotions of other people (Law, Wong Song, 2004). Emotion can also be utilized towards developing constructive ideas to enhance performance at the workplace. UOE measures the abilities of individuals to direct their emotions towards good performance at work (Law, Wong Song, 2004). ROE provides a measure of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to regulate his or her emotions and overcome a psychological depression that may come their way. The other material used in the research is the Global Measure of Perceived Stress (GMPS) that provides a measure of perceived stress of an individual on a universal scale. The instrument used to obtain such data is Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck and Mermelstein, 1983). This contains ten items e ach providing a measure of the extent of stressful situations perceived in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The scores are provided on a Likert scale (ranging from 0 for never to 4 for very often). The study also used Occupational Self-efficacy Scale as it applies in the academic setting instead of the workplace. Procedure The participants were each provided with the different sets of questionnaires and required to fill the relevant information under the supervision of the course tutor. This was pat of the coursework and the participants were to receive no compensation for taking part in the study. Results In order to study the gender differences for the different measures under study, a test of difference of means between the two samples (males and females) was conducted for all the variables. Two-sample t-test is appropriate for this analysis (Lowry, 2011). The results are presented in the following table. Table 1. Sample t-test for difference of means based on gender. Variable Mal e Female Mean SD Mean SD Sign. SEA 22.27 3.63 22.12 3.37 ns OEA 20.31 3.81 20.93 3.94 ns UOE 20.26 4.45 20.20 4.55 ns ROE 19.92 4.91 19.42 4.81 ns GMPS 37.60 7.54 38.59 7.53 ns OCCSEFF 33.81 6.42 34.18 6.67 ns SEA : Self-Emotion AppraisalAdvertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More OEA : Others Emotion Appraisal UOE : Use of Emotion ROE : Regulation of Emotion GMPS : Global Measure of Perceived Stress OCCSEFF : Occupational Self-efficacy scale The results in the above table indicate that there was no significant gender difference in the measures observed. For instance, the mean of the scores for males on Self-Emotion Appraisal scale is 22.27 with a standard deviation of 3.63. On the same scale, the mean score for females is 22.12 with a standard deviation of 3.37. On the GMPS scale, the meals have a mean score of 37.60 with a standard deviation of 7.54 whereas the females have a mean score of 38.59 with a standard deviation of 7.53. Similarly, on the Occupational Self-efficacy scale, the males have a mean score of 33.81 and standard deviation of 6.42 whereas the females have a mean score of 34.18 with a standard deviation of 6.7. A test of comparison of two means for each of the different cases indicates that there are no significant differences in means for a ll the cases. A correlation analysis was also performed to check the relationships between different variables corresponding to the above measures. The results are presented in the following table. Table 2. Coefficients of Correlation between different measures. Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. Sex 1.00 2. Age -.06 1.00 3. SEA Ã¢â¬â .02 .05 1.00 4. OEA .08 .02 .32** 1.00 5. UOE -.01 .10 .40** .23** 1.00 6. ROE -.05 .08 .40** .22** .28** 1.00 7. GMPS .06 -.11 -.18 -.08 -.31** -.37** 1.00 8. OCCSEFF .03 .09 .37** .22** .54** .38** -.33** 1.00 The correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations between some variables and no or insignificant relationships between other variables. The results indicate that there is a significant negative correlation between global measure of perceived stress and the occupational self-efficacy (-.33, p.01). This implies that individuals who have a perception that they are highly efficac ious are likely to experience less stress, and vice versa. The results also indicate that there is a significant positive correlation between occupational self-efficacy and the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ use of emotions (.54, p.01). This implies that the higher the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of the abilities, the high their abilities to direct their emotions towards enhancing performance at work. Occupational self-efficacy has significant positive correlation with other measures like Regulation of Emotions (.38, p.01), appraisal of othersÃ¢â¬â¢ emotions (.22, p.01), and Self-emotion appraisal (.37, p.01). Perceived stress has significant negative correlation with use of emotion (-31, p.01) and regulation of emotions (-37, p.01). This implies that individuals with low ability to regulate and use their emotions appropriately are like to experience stress. All the WLEIS measures on emotional intelligence have significant positive correlations with each other. For instance, self-emotion appraisal has a significant positive correlation both with use of emotion (.44, p.01) and with regulation of emotion (.44, p.01). On the other hand, Sex and Age had no significant relationship with any of the measures. There is no significant correlation between perceived stress and self-emotion appraisal (-.18, p.01). Similarly, there is no significant correlation between global perceived stress and the appraisal of otherÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions (-.08, p.01). Discussion Juts like the previous study that had been conducted, the results provide evidence that there is a significant positive correlation between self-efficacy and emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence was measured in four different dimensions and each dimension showed a positive correlation with self-efficacy. The results indicate that there is a significant negative correlation between emotional intelligence and perceived stress. The social-cognitive theory holds that self-efficacy has influence on the personal behav iors, affect, and motivational processes (Luszczynska et al, 2005, p.82). Perceived stress showed significant negative correlation with two aspects of emotional intelligence; use of emotions (-.31, p.01) and regulation of emotions (-.37, p.01). This supports the claim that was initially given for the study. This is similar to the results that had been obtained by Panda (2008), and conform to the theoretical principles in psychology. Previous researches have indicated correlations between different traits in human beings (Bono Judge, 2003, p.8). High level of emotional intelligence implies that an individual can exhibit psychological adaptation to different stressful situation thereby reducing stress (Panda, 2008). It is associated with high academic performance in some educational subjects (Petrides et al, 2004, p287). Similarly, the results support the hypothesis that self-efficacy is negatively correlated with perceived stress. An individual who has confidence in his or her abili ties is also able to develop an adaptation to the stress and depression experienced. On the other hand, the claim that there is a gender difference in the different measures was not supported by the results. For all the six measures that were used in this study, a comparison of means of the male scores and the female scores showed no significant differences. This differs with earlier reports Tappia (1999) and Dunn (2002) (both cited in Panda 2008) that females and males had some different personality traits. The results of this study are of significance in the fields of psychology and organizational management. It shows that a knowledge and proper cultivation emotional intelligence is the key to managing stress. Various organizations have applied the concept of emotional intelligence to develop employee motivation programmes (Cote et al, 2006). Developing an effective organizational culture requires a focus on the relations and emotions of the people in the organization (Alvesson, Sveningsson, 2008, p.35). Self-efficacy is important for human achievement in different area (Gundlach et al, 2003, p.230).The promotion of self-efficacy in an individual is essential in helping the individual manage stress and enhance his performance in academics and at workplaces. Managers with better understanding of the different components of organizational behavior like stress and emotions are better positioned to overcome the management challenges (French et al, 2011, p.11). The study had no limitations. The number of participants in the study was relatively large with a good proportion for each gender category. Perhaps the only limiting factor that may be considered in future researches is the age variation of the participants. The effects of age on these measures may be illustrated if a wide range is used in the study. Reference List Alvesson, M. Sveningsson, S. 2008, Changing organizational culture: cultural change work in progress, Routledge, London. Bono, J. and Judge, T. 2003, Ã¢â¬Å"Core Self-Evaluations: A Review of the Trait and its Role in Job Satisfaction and Job Performance.Ã¢â¬ European Journal of Personality, 17;5-18. Web. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T. Mermelstein, R. 1983, A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 385-396. Cote, J. et al. 2006, Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51: 1Ã¢â¬â28. Web. French, R. et al. 2011, Organizational behavior, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Queensland. Gundlach, M. et al. 2003, Ã¢â¬Å"Emotional intelligence, causal reasoning, and the self-efficacy development processÃ¢â¬ , International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol.11, no. 3, pp. 229-246. Web. Jordan, P. et al. 2002, Ã¢â¬Å"Emotional intelligence as a moderator of emotional and behavioral reactions to job insecurity,Ã¢â¬ Academy of management review, 27(3), 361-372. Web. Law, K., Wong, C. and Song, L. 2004, Ã¢ â¬Å"The Construct and Criterion Validity of Emotional Intelligence and Its Potential Utility for Management Studies,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3), 483Ã¢â¬â496. Web. Lowry, R. 2011, Chapter11: t-Test for the Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Independent Samples. Web. Luszczynska, A. et al. 2005, Ã¢â¬Å"General self-efficacy in various domains of human functioning: evidence from five countriesÃ¢â¬ , International Journal of Psychology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 80-89. Web. Panda, Y. 2008, Ã¢â¬Å"Emotional intelligence and perceived stress,Ã¢â¬ ICFAI Journal of Organizational Behavior, 7(3), pp13-16. Petrides, K. et al. 2004, Ã¢â¬Å"The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school,Ã¢â¬ Personality and Individual Differences, 36; 277Ã¢â¬â293. Web. Rathi, N. Rastogi, R. 2008, Ã¢â¬Å"Effect of emotional intelligence on occupational self-efficacy,Ã¢â¬ ICFAI Journal of Organizational Behavior, 7 (2), pp 46-56. Rathi, N. Rastogi, R. 2009, Ã¢â¬Å"Assessing the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Occupational Self-Efficacy, and Organizational CommitmentÃ¢â¬ . Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology 35(Special Issue), 93-102. Web. Schyns, B. Moldzio, T. n.d., The value of occupational self-efficacy in selection and development. Web. This research paper on The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Perceived Stress was written and submitted by user Jackson Huffman to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Week Three Quiz Essay Week Three Quiz Essay University of Phoenix Week Three Quiz Directions: Based on your readings and discussions in class this week, select the best answer. Utilize the Text Highlight feature or Bold your response. 1. Which of the following is not an effective way to think about money? a. Live below your means but within your needs. b. Only purchase needs, not wants. c. Financial freedom requires making a lot of money. d. Pay yourself first. 2. The best place for your emergency savings fund is a. in a liquid account at a bank or credit union that offers you the highest interest rate possible b. in a fireproof safe within your home; you want to be able to get to your money quickly in an emergency c. in your checking account or your debit-card account so you can get it right away- keep a mental note of what part of your balance is to be spent only on emergencies d. in a Roth IRA- you can always withdraw your contributions without a penalty or tax 3. If the money you have coming in each month (your take-home pay) is less than the money going out each month to pay the bills, you should a. make up the difference by using a credit card with a very low interest rate b. stop paying your credit card in full; paying just the minimum due gives you more money each month c. look through your spending for the single biggest expense you can eliminate completely to make your income equal what you spend d. find ways to trim spending from multiple spending categories till you have made up the shortfall 4. When selecting and using a debit card, you should avoid a. monitoring your account every other day b. prepay cards that allow you to load more money onto them c. debit cards tied to your checking account d. overdraft protection that allows you to spend more than you have 5. How do you make sure the money you deposit at a bank or credit union is 100% safe- that you are guaranteed to get every penny back no matter what? a. Keep the money in a checking or savings account, not a money-market fund. b. Keep cash in a safe-deposit box at a bank that you have access to seven days a week. c. Just make sure your balance is never more than $50,000 at a single bank or credit union, because that is the limit that financial institutions can guarantee. d. Confirm that a bank is a member of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) or a credit union is a member of the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF), and never have more in your account than the maximum insured amount. 6. What is the main disadvantage of using only a debit card? a. Debit card purchases are not reported to credit reporting agencies and therefore will not help
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Geology and Topography of Antarctica Antarctica is not an ideal place for a geologist to work - it is widely considered one of the coldest, driest, windiest and, during winter, darkest places on Earth. The kilometers-thick ice sheet sitting on top of 98 percent of the continent makes geologic study even more difficult. Despite these uninviting conditions, geologists are slowly gaining a better understanding of the fifth-largest continent through the use of gravity meters, ice-penetrating radar, magnetometers, and seismic instruments. Geodynamic Setting and History Continental Antarctica makes up just a portion of the much larger Antarctic Plate, which is surrounded by mostly mid-ocean ridge boundaries with six other major plates. The continent has an interesting geologic history - it was part of the supercontinent Gondwana as recently as 170 million years ago and made a final split from South America 29 million years ago. Antarctica has not always been covered in ice. At numerous times in its geologic history, the continent was warmer due to a more equatorial location and differing paleoclimates. It is not rare to find fossil evidence of vegetation andÃ dinosaursÃ on the now-desolate continent. The most recent large-scale glaciation is thought to have begun around 35 million years ago. Antarctica has traditionally been thought of as sitting on a stable, continental shield with little geologic activity. Recently, scientists installed 13 weather-resistant seismic stations on the continent that measured the speed of earthquake waves through underlying bedrock and mantle. These waves change speed and direction whenever they encounter a different temperature or pressure in the mantle or a different composition in the bedrock, allowing geologists to create a virtual image of the underlying geology. The evidence revealed deep trenches, dormant volcanoes, and warm anomalies, suggesting that the area may be more geologically active than once thought. From space, Antarcticas geographic features seem, for lack of a better word, nonexistent. Underneath all of that snow and ice, however, lie several mountain ranges. The most prominent of these, theÃ TransantarcticÃ Mountains, are over 2,200 miles long and split the continent into two distinct halves: East Antarctica and West Antarctica. East Antarctica sits on top of a Precambrian craton, made up of mostly metamorphic rocks like gneiss and schist.Ã Sedimentary deposits from the Paleozoic to Early Cenozoic age lie above it.Ã Western Antarctica, on the other hand, is made up of orogenic belts from the past 500 million years. The summits and high valleys of the Transantarctic Mountains are some of the only places on the entire continent not covered in ice.Ã The other areas that are free from ice can be found on theÃ warmer Antarctic Peninsula, which extends 250 miles northward from West AntarcticaÃ towards South America. Another mountain range, theÃ Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, rises almost 9,000 feet above sea level over a 750-mile expanse in East Antarctica. These mountains, however, are covered by several thousand feet of ice. Radar imaging reveals sharp peaks and low valleys with topography comparable to the European Alps. The East Antarctic Ice Sheet has encased the mountains and protected them from erosion rather than smoothing them into glacial valleys. Glacial Activity Glaciers affect not only the topography of Antarctica but also its underlying geology. The weight of ice in West Antarctica literally pushes the bedrock down, depressing low-lying areas below sea level. Seawater near the edge of the ice sheet creeps between the rock and glacier, causing the ice to move much faster towards the sea. Antarctica is completely surrounded by an ocean, allowing sea ice to greatly expand in winter. Ice normally covers around 18 million square miles at the September maximum (its winter) and decreases to 3 million square miles during the February minimum (its summer).Ã NASAs Earth Observatory has a nice side-by-side graphic comparing the maximum and minimum sea ice cover of the past 15 years. Antarctica is almost a geographic opposite of the Arctic, which is an ocean semi-enclosed by landmasses. These surrounding landmasses inhibit sea ice mobility, causing it to pile up into high and thick ridges during the winter. Come summer, these thick ridges stay frozen longer. The Arctic retains around 47 percent (2.7 of 5.8 million square miles) of its ice during warmer months. The extent of Antarcticas sea ice has increased by approximately one percent per decade since 1979 and reached record-breaking levels in 2012 to 2014. These gains do not make up for diminishing sea ice in the Arctic, however, and global sea ice continues to disappear at a rate of 13,500 square miles (larger than the state of Maryland) per year.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Bibliography - Essay Example Investors who are risk-averse and are searching for a recognized periodic payment arrangement usually prefer to invest in bonds. On the other hand, investors who wish to risk more than is the case with bondholders, and are seeking to be included as joint partners in a corporation. Investors who are risk-averse and are searching for a recognized periodic payment arrangement usually prefer to invest in bonds. On the other hand, investors who wish to risk more than is the case with bondholders, and are seeking to be included as joint partners in a corporation. The source describes one disadvantage in investing in stocks being that they do not necessarily guarantee returns. Bonds, however, guarantee returns (Kristof, 17). The source also states that there are greater prospects of high returns with stocks, even though there is also the likelihood of losing money. Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of each? Milevsky, Moshe. Are You a Stock or a Bond?: Identify Your Own H uman Capital for a Secure Financial Future, Updated and Revised. New York: FT Press, 2012. The source describes stocks and bonds as being types of investment that give people the chance to invest their money in a specific business establishments in the hope of accruing handsome profits in future. Though both of these have a number of similarities, they also differ considerably in many ways. Both of these financial tools, in general, allow an individual to be able to invest in private or public companies, in the hope of being a future beneficiary through accrued profits. Stocks, which define the ownership shares in a corporation, are often the most favored by short time investor. One disadvantage in investing in stocks is that they do not necessarily guarantee returns. Bonds, however, guarantee returns. Therefore, there are greater prospects of high returns with stocks, even though there is also the likelihood of losing money. The source asserts that stocks are descriptive of a busin essÃ¢â¬â¢s shares (Milevsky, 84). When a shareholder uses his own money to buy stocks from the company, he is actually acquiring ownership of the business. When the business realizes any profit, a percentage of it is given to the shareholders. In the matter of bonds, when a person invests in them, he is actually lending money to the business in question with the expectation that the firm will reimburse the bonds' amount along with a pre-determined interest rate on a definite time period. According to the source, business establishments may need to raise capital in such ways in order to expand into different localities or new ventures. They also raise capital in order to fund their businesses. Usually, it is the developing businesses that favor issuing stocks to get the necessary finances as this facilitates their growth while helping them to avoid accumulating more debt. The larger corporations are more likely to prefer acquiring capital by availing bonds without giving the chance of ownership to additional shareholders. The Risks involved in making investments in stocks and bonds Bernstein, William. The Ages of the Investor: A Critical Look at Life-cycle Investing. New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012. The source states that for the most part, making such investments in a company always has different risks for the shareholder; but can also deliver handsome profits (Bernstein,